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Kamis, 07 Juni 2012

mind mapping technique effective in teaching writing of descriptive text for the eighth graders


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.  Background of the Study
Language plays an important role in improving students’ intelligence, social and physical. Language helps students gain success in every subject at school. By learning language, students are expected to be acquainted with themselves, others, their culture and other culture.
English does not serve only as a universal language but also as a tool to communicate in oral and written form to understand and figure out the information, mind, feeling, science and technology, and culture. English as a subject in school is directed to improve the four skills, writing, reading, listening and speaking. Learning English at school is expected to solve daily problems in communication and to continue their study to the next steps, to enter college or to find a job.
Writing is one of skills that be taught in teaching English. Writing has relative close with reading, if someone has a good reading habit, it makes easy to write one topic in papers with many views and arguments. Writing can help someone to solve problems and be smarter, because with writing the writer can encourage new ideas, alternative solution, frame work theory and so on. Many students feel that writing is a good method in learning, because they can study to understanding grammatical and vocabulary well.
Writing is most complexes skill and hard work, so teachers should be encourage the students to write continually. Although writing is most complexes skill, some people said that writing is easy. To write appropriately, people must have good capabilities in writing. They must be able to organize the ideas to construct the sentences, to use punctuation and spelling appropriately. In the normal teaching and learning, a teacher can use apendekatan untuk menyampaikan materi pelajaran kepada siswa. technique to delivering course material to students.Salah satu pendekatan One technique can be used is the technique of mind mapping. Prinsip
pendekatan pembelajaran ini adalah sebuah alat bantu untuk berfikir kritis, kreatif,Basically, mind map is a diagram or graphdigunakan untuk merepresentasikan kata-kata, ide, pekerjaan, atau hal lain yang used to represent words, ideas, work, or something elseterhubung dan tersusun secara radial mengelilingi sebuah kata yang mengandung ide connected and arranged radically around a word that contains ideasutama ( main idea ). primary. According to Michael Michalko in Buzan (2008) mind mapping is alternative thinking of brains toward linear thinking. Mind map is a powerful graphic techniquedan menjadi kunci yang universal untuk membuka potensi dari seluruh otak, karena and become a universal key to unlock the potential of the entire brain, becausemenggunakan seluruh keterampilan yang terdapat pada bagian neo-korteks dari otak using all the skills contained in the neo-cortex of the brainatau yang lebih dikenal sebagai otak kiri dan otak kanan. or better known as the left brain and right brain. Based on the statement, it is clearly stated that mind mapping helps students to use their brain as good as possible. They can easy to get information and remember it.
Based on the basic competence for eighth grade, the students will deal with many kinds of the texts such as descriptive text, recount text, narrative text, and also procedural text. Students must have capabilities in writing. They should be able to recognize vocabularies and grammatical in English, so they can arrange the sentences well. Although, every student has different characteristics and style in learning, an English teachers need to provide an appropriate technique or approach that can make writing process joyful. Teacher has to choose a good and appropriate technique in teaching. One of techniques can be chosen is mind mapping.
Buzan (2003) argues that the students can learn in an interesting way using certain technique which is called Mind Mapping. In the usage of mind mapping, students not only use their left side of the brain to identify words but in the same time they also use the right side of the brain in learning language. They will have opportunity to make some colorful pictures, lines, symbols or signs to help them remember the words or the facts in their mind maps. So, every student will not feel depressed in understanding the material.
Referring to those explanations above, the researcher is intended to investigate a research entitled ”The effectiveness of mind mapping technique in writing descriptive text for the eighth graders of SMPN 2 Sakra in the school year of 2011/2012”.

B.  Scope of the Study
In order to investigate more deeply, present researcher gave limitation on the subject and object of the study.
1.        The subject of this study was limited to the eighth graders of SMPN 2 Sakra in the school year of 2011/2012.
2.        The object of this study was limited to the effectiveness of mind mapping technique in writing descriptive text.

C.  Statement of the Problems
Based on the background of the problems above, the researcher formulated the problems of this observation in the form of research questions as follows: 
1.        Is mind mapping technique effective in teaching writing of descriptive text for the eighth graders of SMPN 2 Sakra in the school year of 2011/2012?
2.        To what extend is the effectiveness of mind mapping technique in teaching writing descriptive text for the eighth graders of SMPN 2 Sakra in the school year of 2011/2012?
D.  Purposes of the Study
The study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of mind mapping technique in writing descriptive text for the eighth graders of SMPN 2 Sakra in the school year of 2011/2012, focusing on the following points:
1.         To know whether mind mapping is effective in teaching writing descriptive text for the eighth graders of SMPN 2 Sakra in the school year of 2011/2012.
2.         To find out the effectiveness of mind mapping technique in teaching writing descriptive text for the eighth graders of SMPN 2 Sakra in the school year of 2011/2012.

E.  Significance of the Study
The result of this study was intended to give contribution in teaching English both theoretically and practically.
1.    Theoretically
a.    The result of this study is expected to be a basic knowledge for further research of mind mapping technique in writing.
b.    The result of this study is expected as reference to the other researcher who wants to study more about descriptive writing text by using mind mapping technique.
2.    Practically
a.    For the teacher
1.    The result of this study is expected to be able to contribute any use for language teachers in teaching English.
2.    The result of this study is expected to help the teachers solve the problems in teaching especially writing skill.
b.    For the students
1.    The finding of this study is expected as guidance for language teachers in teaching English mainly to increase the students’ achievement in writing.
2.    The finding of this study is expected as guidance for English teachers to motivate the students in learning English better.
c.    For the researcher
1.   The result of this study is expected to prove technique in teaching English especially in writng descriptive text.
2.   The result of this study is expected as reference to conduct further research about this study.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW AND LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESIS

A.  Mind Mapping
1.    Definition of Mind Mapping
Some people realize that diagram or chart can help them rearrange and visualize the ideas that on their mind. They usually use symbols or pictures that can represent words and ideas to helps them remember well. In 1960s, an English psychologist names Tony Buzan introduced and developed this idea which is later well-known as Mind Mapping Technique.
Buzan and Abbot (2010, p. 4) stated “mind mapping is an easy way to place information to brain and take information out from brain. Mind Mapping is creative and effective way to write and will map your mind by a simple way”. Mind map helps students to learn, arrange, and store information in their brain. Information can be illustrated with symbols, words, color, images, links, and attachments to add context, helping to reveal new directions, greater clarity, and big ideas. Because of mind map illustration using a creative method (symbols, words, color, images), it easy and pleasure to see, read, understanding, and memorizeIt. Mind mapping can solve problem in a large areas, it is possible to make decision, and collect the data.
All mind mapping is using color and the form is radiant thinking. All mind maps have nature structure which spray from the center. By the lines, symbol, words, and picture which related in simply, basic, nature series with brain. Using mind map, long list information could change into colorful diagram, well regulated, and easy to memorize.
“A picture is worth a thousand words” is a widely used proverb. A picture has an effective on a mental representation is that readers recognize the utility of the picture and spend sufficient time processing it. However, teachers should start asking how systematically students have been trained to process and understand graphs, not to mention how they have been trained to monitor text (and text-graph) coherence.
Mind mapping is a creative thinking involves all of mentality skills of brain. The human brain consists of two parts; left hemisphere, and right hemisphere. In the usage of mind mapping, students not only use their left side of the brain to identify words but in the same time they also use the right side of the brain in learning language.

Table 1
Function of Brain
Left brain
Right brain
Words or language
Rhythm
Rational thinking
Space
Numeracy
Gestalt (the whole of picture)
Sequential
Imagination
Linear
Daydream
Analytical
Color
List
Dimension

2.    The Step of Making Mind Mapping
A teacher must be able to choose appropriate technique to increasing students’ comprehension in writing. One of techniques can be chosen is mind maps. Mind maps enhance the learning of writing text by encouraging students to take many words quickly at once rather than one word at a time. Buzan and Abbot (2010) explain seven steps in making mind map:
a.    Start from the center of a blank page turned sideways. The idea of beginning in the center is designed to give the brain the creative freedom to branch out in all direction.
b.    Use an image or picture for your central idea because images have a strong impact on our imagination and memory. It also pleases sight and keeps attention focused.
c.    Use color throughout. Color stimulates creative thinking helps distinguish area of creative though, stimulates the visual centers of the brain and captures the eye’s attention and interest.
d.   Connect mind branches to the central image and connect second and third level branches to first and second levels. This kind of connecting is done because the brain work by association, and if the branches are connected on the page in front of one, the ideas also connect in one’s head, which will spark off more creative thought.
e.    Make the branches curved rather than straight. A mind map with straight lines is boring to the eyes and does not reflect its creative intent! The brain is far more attracted to the curved lines that are found in nature when it is working creatively.
f.     Use one word per line. This is done because each single word or image generates its own vast array of creative thought. When single words are used, they leave the mind or open to the sparking of new thought, whereas phrases or sentences tend to dampen that triggering effect. If and idea needs to be expressed in the form of a phrase, it is important to include only key words and not “enclose” the thought with grammatical structures.
g.    Use image throughout. Image and symbols are easy to remember, and they stimulate new creative association.
On other hand, Mega Brain gives steps to create mind map quickly and effectively can be done by the following ways:
a.    Use big enough paper, A4 or A3
b.    Horizontal position (landscape)
c.    Putting down a title in the centre of blank paper
d.   Make main branch to write down the gist of one’s thoughts or topic especial (just keyword). Keyword usually a noun or a verb
e.    Main branch have to be more thick than additional branch
f.     Use block letters, boldface, and chromatic marker
g.    Use picture, sign or symbols to progress visual effect of gist of one’s thoughts. Use three or four colors to drow main idea.
h.    From the main branch, make branch again to create sub topic








Figure 1. Mind Map
3.    The Advantages and Disadvantages of Mind Mapping
According to Michael Michalko in his book cracking creativity cited from Buzan and Abbot (2010), mind mapping will: active brain, helped mind from mental problem, made us focus on the mind subject, helped us to showed the connection between information that separated, gave the clear picture in whole, possible to make us classified the concept, and help to compare it.
Based on the above statement, mind map helps students to; planning, communicate, be more creative, solve the problem, concentrate attention, arrange and explain the ideas, remember well, learning quickly and efficient.  
Mind mapping gives many advantages. Anything can be mind-mapped, such as: a birthday party, a book one is reading, one’s plans for the day, notes taken in a class or lecture, flower arranging, the economy, the meaning of life, or one’s experience of a place of music. Similar to a road map, a mind map will: give an overview of a large subject or area, encourage problem solving by seeing new creative pathways, enable students to be extremely efficient and enjoyable to look at, read, muse over and remember.
Furthermore, Buzan explains that mind map gives advantages than linear note. The advantages of mind mapping (Buzan, 1995) :
a.    The centre of mind map (main idea) is defined clearly.
b.    The level of each idea is shown clearly. The important idea near of the centre and on other hand.
c.    The relation between keywords can be known quickly because of its relation. It makes the remembering of students more effective.
d.   Mind map is seen different with other maps
e.    The structure of mind map has probably to add the new information.
 While, the disadvantages of mind mapping; need a lot of time in organization, difficulties to alocate the time, need many times to find an effective keyword,  too load the students.

B.  Writing
1.    Definition of Writing
Writing is an activity to write a language by using signs or symbols. Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols. It is distinguished from illustration, such as cave drawing, painting, and non-symbolic preservation of language via non-textual media, such as magnetic tape audio.
Writing is a combination of process and product (Sokolik, 2003) as cited from Linse (2005). Sokolik explain that the process of writing is by collecting all the ideas or data that we have, managing it then providing it into the good result which also known as product. Furthermore, writing means the act or art of forming letters and characters on paper, wood, stone, or other material, for the purpose of recording the ideas which characters and words express, or of communicating them to others by visible signs. This suggests composition instruction that recognizes the importance of generating, formulating, and refining one’s idea.
2.    Aspect of Writing
Writing is one language skill which must be taught to the students. It is the same importance as the other language skills. It is an indirectly way of communication but it is very important in human life in expressing thoughts and feelings in the form of writing especially for the students.
Writing is not easy, so it is needed many exercises continuously. In writing there are some aspects must be known, they are namely;
a.    micro aspect (spelling, punctuation, etc.), and
b.    macro aspect (content, organization).
Heaton (1984) said that there are four skills involved in writing competence; grammatical skill, stylizes skill and mechanical skill and judgment skill. Grammatical skill is the ability to write correct sentences. Stylistic skill is the ability to manipulate sentences in effective language. Mechanical skill is the ability to apply the graph convention such as; spelling and punctuation. Judgment skill is the ability to write in an appropriate manner for a particular purpose. While, Harris (1986) states that, the writing competence has four aspects; orthography, structure, vocabulary, and fluency.
1)   Orthography is language sound description which is in the form of writing or a symbol and language spelling system.
2)   Structure is the arrangement of rules in a language becoming meaningful language units.
3)   Vocabulary is the total number of word in a language
4)   Fluency in the writing ability implemented with a properly speed, not too slow or not too fast.
Based on these theories above, aspects of writing should be measure were; grammatical, vocabulary, mechanic and relevancy.
3.    Types of Writing
Alwasilah (2005) mentions four types of writing that called as “EDAN”, which means expository writing, descriptive writing, argumentative writing, and narrative writing.
a.    Expository writing
Expository writing is a kind of writing that aims at clarifying, explaining, teaching, or evaluating an issue. The author tries to give information or sign to the reader by developing idea with giving an example, process, cause and result, classification, definitions, analyses, compare, and contrary.
In every piece of expository writing, a good writer should consider the basic characteristic of a good expository writing. A good expository writing should contain three elements, namely the purpose, audience and topics. To the students, purpose is the goal that they need to discover by themselves. The personality chosen should lonely be selected after considering the purpose of writing. Next, the other element is a topic. It is also a very important element in writing essay because the topic is identified in writing assignment.
b.    Descriptive writing
Starting form etymology the word ‘description’ is derived from word: describe, meanings a hint or to write about. So, the word description means something that is being traced or drawn. It is refers to aim of description to describe a particular person, place or thing.
Descriptive text is a kind of writing that is used to describe about a person, object, appearance, scenery, or phenomenon. In this text, the author tries to make readers as like they see, feel, and experience what the story tell. Description could briefly explain and evolve about process, compare, definitions, and other strategies. Meanwhile, the generic structure of description is identification and description.
c.    Argumentative writing
Argumentative writing is a kind of writing that aims to prove the truth or untruth of a statement or situations. The writer tries to show the empirical data by giving a logical appeal, pathetic or affective appeals, such as authority, empirical data, logical appeals, and values or attitude.
In daily experiences, life is touched at almost every point by argumentation. Argument is use to avoid disorder. On the other hand, the purpose of the argument is to support a direct opinion about some ideas, position or piece of information that have encountered in reading. Furthermore, to create a well developed statement of argumentative must either;  re call those experiences, ideas, or place information that first led you to the conclusion.
d.    Narrative writing
Narrative original from “to narrate” means to tell. This is the kind of writing that means to tell a story. It can be used to introduce or illustrate a complicated, subject were writer often uses narration to provide a detailed, personal account of “what happened”. Narrative is about a chronological story (true or just a fictional). It deals with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution.
On other hand, narrative usually refers to the story and the term is used here to describe and experience that in the past (Past narration), typical experience (What people usually do), or it happens now (Present narration).
4.    Process of Writing
People write every day. Students write papers for their college course. Businessman communicates ideas in reports and memos. Journalist composes new stories and so on. Before realize that writing is a hard work but writing is also opportunity to convey something he/she didn’t know. To make good use of those opportunities, he/she needs develop the confidence that will enable them to overcome, whatever the frustration a writing assignment may present.
When someone starts writing, he/she does not exactly follow the same basic steps as they write, it just flows based on their mind. In detail, the writing process can be classified into several broad categories such as planning, drafting and revising. This categories should be done integrally and continuously to get a perfect writing.
Teaching writing does not only focus on the result but also the process of writing. White and Arndt’s model (Harmer, 2001) can represent the writing process; drafting, structuring (ordering information, experimenting with arrangement), reviewing (checking context, connections, assesing impact, editing), focusing, and the last is generating idea and evaluation.


Drafting
Structuring
Focusing
Evaluating
Reviewing
Generating ideas












Figure 2. White and Arndt’s Process Writing Model
In addition, during understanding process of writing, students engage in pre-writing, planning drafting, and post writing activities they will be discussed.
a.   Pre-Writing
Pre-writing is the first stage in writing process, begins long before the writer puts thoughts into writing the experiences, observations and interactions that students have an impact upon when and how they will write it.
b.   Planning
After students have generated some ideas, they must decide what they will say about their chose topic. Students develop an initial plan for the product they will compose. As they do so, they must consider the purpose, audience, point of view and format because these elements have implications for both the planning and the drafting of the written product.
c.   Drafting
At this point in the process, the emphasis is on content and meaning rather than on mechanics and conventions this is the time for written to get down their ideas and thoughts, composing rough drafts based upon pre-writing and planning activities and considerations.
d.  Post Writing
When students have an authentic audience and purpose, they want to rework their writhen drafts, polishing them for presentations or publications. Teachers may encourage students to share certain pieces or determine the number of pieces that the students a required to share or publish within a set time period, but ultimately the decision about which pieces to share, and with whom should be left up to the writer.
5.    Descriptive Text
D’Angelo (1980, as cited in Setiawan, 2007) stated that description is a way of picturing images verbally in speech of writing and of arranging does image in some kind of logical pattern. Description could briefly explain and evolve about process, compare, definitions, and other strategies. Descriptive writing is a kind of writing that is used for describe about a person, object, place, appearance, scenery, or phenomenon. Descriptive text is a kind of writing genre that first taught in the level of junior high school. A descriptive text has a functional objective to describe a particular person, place, things (Depdiknas,2006). From the book “Making sense of functional grammar” by Gerot and Wignell (1995) it is stated that descriptive text is a kind of the text which is aimed to describe a particular person, place, or things. Referring these theories can be formulated that descriptive writing vividly explained about a person, place, or thing which can make the reader as imagine it.
In a descriptive writing, there are four kinds of descriptive texts that can be explored: first, historical profile, providing an interesting accurate report bout place, times, or event. Second, venture profile, deeply reporting about occupation or business. Third, reporting from interview, field observation, and other research. Forth, a case study which is telling about someone experience for representing a cluster, for example: the sacrifice of disaster, immigrant community, and the last, personal research report; serve the story specifically about an observation which entertaining you, it is can be about an usual hobby,
new technology, etc. (Alwasillah, 2005).
Djuhaire (2009) classifies a descriptive text into two parts, first is identification; introduction about subject or something that want to describe, and the last is description; giving an information about characteristics of subjects.
Furthermore, the generic structure of descriptive text can be seen in the following table:

Table 2
The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text
Goal
To describe a particular person, place and thing
Generic Structure
·       Identification : identifies phenomenon to be describe
·       Description : describes parts, qualities, characteristics

Language Feature
·      Focus on specific participant
·      Using detailed noun phrases, a noun word that added into adjective, medley kind of adjective that has quality of describing, numbering, classifying, relational process
·      Using specific noun and simple present tense
·      Using verbs described about condition of participant and signal of propriety
·      Using figurative words as way to give compare illustrations


C.  Relevant Study
The similar problem had been investigated by Novita Sari Asmiaty. She investigated about “Using Mind Mapping Technique to Improve Students’ Ability in Reading Descriptive Text; A Quasi Experimental Study of Seventh Grade Students at SMPN 12 Bandung in academic year of 2008/2009”.
There were three problems formulated in her study, those were (1) is the use of mind mapping technique effective in improving students’ ability in reading descriptive text for the seventh grade students at SMPN 12 Bandung in academic year of 2008/2009? (2) From the students’ perception, what are problems found in using mind mapping technique to learn descriptive text?  And (3) what are the advantages and disadvantages in using mind mapping technique in learning descriptive text for the seventh grade students at SMPN 12 Bandung in academic year of 2008/2009?
The research design of the present researcher was Quasi Experimental Study by using two groups experiment (experimental group and control group). The instrument used in collecting data was pilot test in form of multiple choices.
The second study had been investigated also by Deasy Ramayanti. She investigated about “Using Mind Mapping Technique to Improve Students’ Ability in Writing Descriptive Text; A Quasi Experimental Study of Eighth Grade Students at Junior High school in SMPN 12 Bandung in academic year of 2008/2009”.
There were two problems formulated in her study, those were “(1) Does mind mapping technique improve students’ ability in writing descriptive text? And (2) what are the students’ responses toward the use of mind mapping in learning descriptive text?
The research design of the present researcher was Quasi Experimental Study by using two groups experiment (experimental group and control group). The instruments of the research were, pre-test, post-test and questionnaires.
The similarities of these researches were in investigating the main problem that is mind mapping technique as the variable in investigating.

D.  Theoretical Framework
Theoretical framework is the basic thinking of the research. In theoretical Framework, the present researcher thinks based on students’ problem in studying English, especially in teaching and learning process, many problems and activities faced by students and the teacher. But successful of the students in studying English is mostly determined by themselves inside (students) and outside (teacher, environment, and their family) of the school.
Other problems come from the strange of the materials, confused, and uninteresting situation when teaching learning process in the classroom. So the teacher’s duty is how to develop the students’ interest in studying English especially in writing, because writing is one of language components that have function to express feelings, opinion, ideas, and emotion. Teacher should be finding out the appropriate technique in teaching English, so students can remind and understanding the materials well. One of techniques can be used is mind mapping. And through mind mapping as one of technique is facilitating to teach writing and it is able to overcome the failure of students in studying it. Later, it can be the best way of  to solve students’ problem to understand a difficult task.
The present researcher thought that by using mind mapping in teaching and learning process, will be better to develop students’ ability and increasing the students’ achievement in writing ability especially. And practical applications were able to develop the present researcher viewed same understanding how to apply teaching and learning of English to increase student’s ability in writing.

E.  Hypothesis
Hypothesis original from “hupo” means (temporary) and “thesis” (statement or theory). So, hypothesis is temporary solution or statement that is not yet acknowledged as true on hundred percents.
Based on the above explanation, the hypothesis of this study was formulated as follow “mind mapping technique is significantly effective in teaching writing descriptive text for the eighth graders of SMPN 2 Sakra in the school year of 2011/2012.













CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A.  Setting of the Study
This study was done at the second semester for the eighth graders of SMPN 2 Sakra of the school year 2011/2012.

B.  Research Design
Research design is really needed by a researcher in order to know the way to analyze the data of the study. The research design in this study was a pre experimental design, by using one group experiment; those were pre-test and post-test design. In this case; the present researcher analyzed students’ writing ability before and after giving treatment by using Mind Mapping Technique.

Experimental Group
Pretest
Treatment
Posttest

O1
X
O2

Figure 3. Research Design

According to Gall (Gall & Borg, 2003) research design above includes three steps; 1) Implementation of pretest to measure dependent variable, 2) Treatment, 3) Posttest to measure the result and effect toward dependent variable.
Referring to the above explanation, the present researcher used pre experimental design. In this design, observation was done twice; they were before treatment (O1) and after treatment (O2). To know the effectiveness of mind mapping technique present researcher compared scores of pretest and posttest.
C.  Population and Sample of the Study
1. Population of the Study
Riduwan (2004, p. 55) states “Population is the whole of characteristics or unit about the result of measurement as the object of the research. Furthermore, Punaji (2010) states that Population is all of the subjects where are samples will be taken.
Referring on these theories, it said that population is object or subject that stay in one area and have definite characteristics related to problems of the research. The target population of this study was six classes of the eighth graders of SMP 2 Sakra in the school year 2011/2012, and students were still actively learning English as one of compulsory subject, as shown in table 3:

Table 3
The Population of the Study
No.
Class
Sum of Population
1
VII-1
34 students
2
VII-2
34 students
3
VII-3
34 students
4
VII-4
34 students
5
VII-5
34 students
6
VII-6
34 students

TOTAL
204 students

2. Sample of the Study
Sample is the smaller group or subset of population. Sugiono (1997) states that sample is a part of number and characteristic of population.  Based on this statement can be concluded that sample is a part of population that have definite characteristic or condition will be observed.
Referring to above theory the present reseacher took one class from the total of population by using cluster random sampling. This technique was used because the population were supposed that they were homogeneous. After that, the present reseacher was taken a part of them by using lottery. As the result, the class VII-1 was chosen as the sample of the study which consists of 30 students.

D.  Collecting Data
1.    Identifying the Variable
Variable is all of something that will be object observation in the research Referring on the title of this study, there was a variable in this study namely mind mapping technique in writing descriptive text.
2.     Defining the Variable
a.    Mind mapping
Mind mapping defines as a technique of making graphical outline which is use to represent words, ideas, tasks, or another linked to an arranged radically around a central keyword or idea by lines and typically it contains words, colors, short phrase or pictures.
b.    Writing descriptive text
Writing descriptive text is a kind of writing that is used for describe about a person, object, appearance, scenery, or phenomenon which can make the reader as imagine it. Description can briefly explain and evolve about process, compare, definitions, and other strategies.
3.    Instrument of the Study
Instrument is a tool used to collect the data. To know the effectiveness of teaching writing descriptive text using mind mapping technique, the researcher used test to collect the data. The students administrated test, so the researcher divided the score into four criteria, namely grammar, vocabulary, mechanic, and relevancy. To score the students writing scripts the present researcher had subjective scoring.
After that, to get the mean, the scores from all criteria were summed and divided into four criteria. The pre-test was administrated before the treatment implemented. Moreover, the post-test was administrated after the researcher implemented the treatment to the experimental class.
An instrument is used in one research must be valid. Punaji (2010, p. 18) found “an instrument will be valid if it is able to measure what should be measured.”
Based on the theory above, the researcher used writing test that was taken from English course book for Junior High School. The researcher did not try out the test but the researcher used two kinds of validity namely; construct validity and content validity.
a.      Construct validity
According to Nurgiyantoro (2009), construct validity refers to the extent to which the results of the data collection process can be interpreted in terms of underlying psychological construct. While, Punaji (2010) states that construct validity is important to measures students’ ability or psychological construct. Based on these explanations, the instrument has construct validity if there is a relationship between theory and concept of the competence needed to accomplish the tests in this study. The instrument was consulted to English teacher, and a course book is being used for Junior High School level. So, it was categorized into a valid test.
b.      Content validity
Punaji (2010) states that content validity refers to the extent an instrument describe or reflect content that is expected. Meanwhile, Nurgiyantoro (2009) states that content validity refers to the extent to which data collection process measures a representative sample of the subject matter or behavior that should be encompassed by the operational definition. In addition, Purwanto (2008, p. 138) states “the test has content validity if the scope and content of the test based on the curriculum that has been taught”. Before deciding content validity, the researcher creates blueprint based on the topic.
4.    Technique of Collecting Data
Collecting the data in this study, researcher used written test. The present researcher administrated the steps to collect data as follow:
a.    Pre-test
The present researcher administrated pre-test to the students. The pre-test was in written test form. The scores were taken in four criteria, namely; grammar, vocabulary, mechanic, and relevancy. Then, to get the mean, the scores from all criteria were summed and divided into four.
b.    Treatment (teaching and learning process)
The present researcher asked each student about the material for experimental in pre-test and post-test. In this case, the present researcher used mind mapping technique.
c.    Post-test
The present researcher administrate post-test to the students. The test was similar with the pre-test. However, the post-test was given after the treatment, in teaching writing by using mind mapping technique. The scores were taken in four criteria, which were the scores of word grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, mechanic, and relevancy.
The whole of the kinds of test was evaluated by researcher as follows:

Table 4
Scoring Guidelines for Analytical Scheme of Writing Skill
Element
Level
Criteria
Grammar
1
2
3
4

5
Meaningless
Reflects Indonesia structure but still under stable
Contains mistakes in using verbs
Contains random mistakes in using verb be form noun, adverb and adjective.
The writing script uses complete and perfect grammar.

Vocabulary
1
2
3
4
5

The score less than 20 different words
20 – 29 different words
30 – 39 different words
40 – 90 different words
More than of 50 different words
Mechanic
1
2
3
4
5
Writing is unwritten and meaningless.
Contains random mistakes in punctuation and spelling.
Contains random mistakes in spelling of word
Contains random mistakes in using punctuation mark
The spelling and the punctuation are perfect.

Relevancy
1
2
3
4

5
The writing script is poor of unity.
There are random mistakes in sentence order.
There is a lack of cohesion
There is a light shift of the topic between sentence and does not disturb cohesion.
The writing is relevance enough to the topics

E.     Analyzing Data
1.    Descriptive Statistics
After the data had been collected, the present researcher found the descriptive statistic, but before it done, the researcher found the mean score (M) and standard deviation (SD) of students’ score. To get mean score of pre-test and post-test, the researcher used the following formula:

               
                                 
Where:
= the mean score
∑ = sum of
Xi = the number of each data
n = the number of data
(Riduwan & Sunarto, 2010)

Meanwhile, to get the standard deviation of sample, the researcher used the following formula:

                                                 

Where:
s = standard deviation
= the number of deviation       
(Riduwan & Sunarto, 2010)
2.    Hypothesis Testing
To analyze the hypothesis testing manually which was aimed to know whether the alternative hypothesis was accepted or not, the present researcher finds r-test first before analyzing t-test. It can be used the following formula:

r =     
                   
To know the effectiveness of mind mapping method in writing descriptive text, the present researcher used the formula as follows


Where:       
r           = correlation score of X1 and X2
n          = the number of sample
        = mean score of pretest
        = mean score of posttest
s1          = standard deviation of pretest
s2          = standard deviation of posttest
S1         = variant of pretest
S2         = variant of posttest               
(Riduwan & Sunarto, 2010):
The hypothesis criteria, if:
t test ≥ t tabel, it means that Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected (significant)
t test ≤ t tabel, it means that Ha is rejected and Ho is accepted (not significant)

 (Riduwan & Sunarto, 2010)

All data were calculated by using computer package SPSS 17.0 for Windows.


4 komentar:

  1. blh minta sumbernya ga? cz referensi yang saya dapatkan tentang mind mapping baru 3 tuh pun dari tony buzan, apa ada pengarang yang lain? mau tambah referensi saya. minta daftar pustakanya.....

    BalasHapus
  2. referrencesny bole tau gag????

    BalasHapus
  3. boleh mnt refrencesnya gak??????

    BalasHapus
  4. bisa share reff ga? stressful nih krn ganti judul...
    thanks

    BalasHapus