REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESIS
A. Reading of Descriptive Text
1. Definition of Reading
Reading is the first step in acquisition of knowledge. Reading is very important issue which is not only about enjoyment but also necessity; the basic tool of education and it is the key to learning in all aspect of live. Cheek (as cited in Desi, 2009).
According to Hornby (1995, p.96) reading is to look at and understand the meaning of written or printed words or symbols. It means that the reader must be able to interact with the reading material, which includes printed words or symbols. Cooper et al. (as cited in Rina, 2010) states that reading is the process of constructing meaning from the printed page. It means that the reader relates the clues found in the text with his/her prior knowledge to form language.
Rudel (as cited in Desi, 2009) states that reading is the act of constructing meaning while interacting with text, we must use information stored in schemata to understand and interact with the world around us.
Harmer (1991, p.90), reading is an exercise dominated by the eyes and the brain. In addition, Tarigan (2008, p.7) states that reading is a process in which done by reader to get message or information from the writer through printed media.
Whereas, Carrel (2000, p.4), reading is not passive, but rather than active process. In learning English as a second language, reading is an active cognitive process of interacting with print and monitory comprehension to build up meaning.
English is still a foreign language for Indonesian students. It is certainly not easy to interpret the meaning an idea from written texts. To understand a reading text, the students must have a good competence in knowing the meaning of words, sentences, content and the most important is to know about the writer’s idea. It means while the students read a text, they not only know the meaning word by word but also the writer’s idea in the text.
Based on definition above, the present researcher concludes that reading is the process of grasp meaning of the content and the writer’s idea about the topic. Furthermore, grasp means comprehending the reading materials. Reading comprehension is the ability to understand the idea and information in the reading texts.
2. Reading Comprehension
The major goal of reading for high school students is comprehension. Readers’ ability to understand the author’s message is influenced by their background knowledge to the topic given in the text. It is stated by Neufeld (2005, p.302), comprehension is the process of constructing a supportable understanding of a text. He added comprehension involves two important features: being actively involved with the text and using appropriate background knowledge to interpret the text.
It means that the reader will reconstruct her or his background knowledge in understanding the text. Gibbons (1993, p.51) states that reading is the process of getting meaning from print. It means that reading is an activity to get information from written text. In this activity, there is interaction between the author and the writer because the writer delivers her/his idea to the readers through the texts. The reader can also improve their understanding through reading activity. In this case, reading is very useful activity that should be done as a habit for everybody because reading will enlarge their knowledge about something.
Burnes and Page (as cited in Desi, 2009), state that reading comprehends written discourse. The readers also need to understand about the materials that they read because it is one of the purposes of reading activity. In other word, the readers have to be able to comprehend the written discourse that they read. If they can understand the text, it means that they can comprehend the text.
Burnes and Page (as cited in Desi, 2009) also point out that to understand or remember what is read, the child must be able to relate new information to the previous knowledge. It means that the knowledge that is had by the readers influence the ability of the readers in comprehending what they read. The readers have to be able to use their prior knowledge in order to help them to comprehend the texts that they read. If they do not have background knowledge or information about the materials that they read, they will face some difficulties in understanding the texts or they have to work hard to understand it.
Gibbons (1993, p.52) states that readers bring their own background knowledge of the ‘field’, or topic, and their understanding of language system itself. On the other word, the prior knowledge had by the readers is an important tool that can help the readers in comprehending the reading materials. It will guide them to have better understanding about something, so that reading activity can improve their knowledge because reading can give many advantages. The more people read, the more they will get.
There is also relationship between the knowledge that students have and their ability in comprehending the text. The readers can use their prior knowledge to guess about the materials that they will read, so it will give contribution to the readers’ achievement in reading. At least, it can give general description about something on the texts or reading materials.
Furthermore, King and Stanly (as cited in Desi, 2009) state that reading has five components contained in reading texts, which are appropriate with the junior senior high school curriculum, they are:
a. Finding factual information
Factual information requires readers to scan specific details. The factual information questions are generally prepared for students and those which appear with WH question word. There are many types of questions; reason, purpose, result, time, comparison, etc in which of the answer can be found in the text.
b. Finding main ideas
Recognition of the main idea of a paragraph is very important because it helps you not only understand the paragraph on the first reading, but also helps you to remember the content later. The main idea of a paragraph is what the paragraph develops. An efficient reader understands not only the ideas but also the relative significance as expressed by the writer. An efficient reader understand not only the ideas but also their relative significance, as expressed by the author, in other words, some of the ideas as super ordinate while other subordinate.
c. Finding the meaning of vocabulary in context
It means that the reader could develop his or her guessing ability to the word which is not familiar with him or her, by relating the close meaning of unfamiliar words to the text and the topic of the text that is read. The words have nearly equivalent meaning when it has it or nearly the same meaning as another word.
d. Identifying references
It means that, the reader able to know the source of text and able to combine one resource with other. It will be more accurate to read and learn by reader. It will guide the reader in the reading. In the identifying reference have advantage to reader.
e. Reference words
In English, as in other language, it would be clumsy and boring to have and repeat the same word or phrase every time you used it. Instead of repeating the same word or phrase several times, after it has been used we can usually refer to it than repeat it. For this purpose, we use reference words. Recognizing reference words and being able to identify the word to which they refer to will help the reader understand the reading passage. Reference words are usually short and very frequently pronoun, such as; it, she, he, they, this, etc.
f. Making inferences
Inference is a skill where the reader has to be able to read between lines. King and Stanley divide into two main attentions, draw logical inferences and make accurate prediction.
a. Aspects of Reading Comprehension
According to Miles A. Tinker and Contance M. McCullough (in http://www.shvoong.com/writing-and-speaking/copywriting/2099897-definition-aspects-reading), aspects of reading based on normal reading situation consist of three kinds. They are word recognition, comprehension and reflections.
1. Word recognition
The degree of excellence in reading is determined, to a large extent, by the ability to recognize and pronounce words. The core of view that reading is chiefly skill in recognizing words can be accurate by the form of the word itself. Decoding the printed page is one of examples of recognizing the oral equivalent of the written symbol.
Comprehension is one of competence that must be had by the readers. Reading just is not transferring the symbol printed from page to the brain but the readers have to comprehend the content of the reader’s read. Comprehension in reading becomes important because it makes the readers have meaningful in their reading. In other word, their reading is not useless.
There are three levels of reading comprehension.
There are three levels of reading comprehension.
a. Literal reading
Literal reading is the ability to know all of the directions in the text and also understand exact words, meanings and characters.
b. Aesthetic reading
Aesthetic reading is the ability to appreciate what the reader’s read before.
c. Critical reading
Critical reading consists of making factual distinction between common ideas, facts and opinion. This capability is needed for valid interpretation and analysis. It means that the readers able to analyze what the reader’s read after.
Many educators have pointed out that word recognition and comprehension does not g, reading more advantages for the readers when they apply what they read after. Globally, this aspect involves comprehension and word recognition. Look, the process of reading necessary to be able to hold ideas they occur and to conceptualize meaningful interpretation through reflection. This process compares the written stimuli with the reader’s experiences. From three aspects of reading above, the writer hopes to the readers that all of the readers who read any book are needed to know the aspects of reading. In order to make their reading more meaningful, of course by comprehend all of those aspects above.
1. Descriptive Text
a. Defintion of Descriptive Text
Descriptive writing is a kind of writing that is used for describe about a person, object, appearance, scenery, or phenomenon. Description can briefly explain and evolve about process, compare, definitions, and other strategies. Descriptive text is a kind of writing genre that first taught in the level junior high school a descriptive text has functional objective to describe a particular person, place, things (Depdiknas, 2006). Descriptive writing vividly explains about a person, place, or thing which can make the reader as imagine it. Form the book “Making sense of functional grammar” by Gerot and Wignell (1995, p.208) it is stated that descriptive text is a kind of the text which is aimed to describe a particular person, place or thing.
Meanwhile, Zahrowi (2009, p. 9) defines descriptive text is a text which contains the explanation of what person or thing is like. Descriptive text as a text which the characteristics of something; it used in all form of writing to create a vivid impression of person, place, object or event. Relates to this statement, Anderson and Mark (as cited in Rina, 2010) state that a factual description specifically used to describe a particular place, person or thing. Then, the purpose of a descriptive text is to tell about the subject by describing its features without including person opinions. Moreover, Anderson and Mark (as cited in Rina, 2010) elaborate a factual description differs from an information report because describe a specific subject rather than a general group. For example: the description of a particular place or descriptions of a specific person. Specifically, descriptive text in this research includes the text that has the function to describe something or somebody in our daily life. Descriptive text also has language features and the generic structure. Those things make the descriptive text has certain characteristics that will different from the other text genres as shown in table 1 as follow.
The Genre Structure of Descriptive Text
Descriptive writing vividly portrays a person, place, or thing in such a way that the reader can visualize the topic and enter into the writer’s experience.
The general characteristics of descriptive writing include:
Elaborate use of sensory language:
a. Rich, vivid, and lively detail
b. Figurative language such as simile, hyperbole, metaphor, symbolism and personification
c. Showing, rather than telling though the use of active verbs and precise modifiers
Descriptive writing appears almost everywhere and it often included in other genre, such as in a descriptive introduction of a character in a narrative
In a descriptive writing, there are four kinds of descriptive texts that can be explored: first, historical profile, providing an interesting accurate report about place, times, or event. Second, venture profile, deeply reporting about occupation or business. Third, reporting from interview, field observation, and other research.
Forth, a case study which is telling about someone experience for representing a cluster, for example: the sacrifice of disaster, immigrant community, and the last, personal research report; serve the story specifically about an observation which entertaining you, it is can be about an usual hobby, new technology, etc. (Alwasillah, 2005, p.114).
b. Language Features of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text has the language features. Language features in a descriptive text can be identified by the reader because it usually uses identifying process, adjective and classifiers in nominal group and also simple present tense. Zahrowi (2009, p. 25) mentions the dominant language features in a descriptive text as follows:
1. Descriptive text usually uses simple present tense, action verbs, passive voice, noun phrase, and adverb phrase, technical terms, general and abstract noun and also conjunction and cause-effect.
2. In a paragraph of the descriptive text, it usually has an opening paragraph used to introduce the subject of the description and then it is followed by a series of paragraphs. Those paragraphs will describe one feature of the subject. It can also be final concluding section that signals the end of the description. Clearly, general opening statement in the first paragraph introduces the subject of the description to the audience; it can give the audience brief details about when, where, who or what of the subject.
3. Then, series of paragraphs discuss about the subject. It usually begins with a topic sentence. The topic sentence previews details that will be contained in the remainder of the paragraph. Those paragraphs build the description of the subject.
4. Last, concluding paragraph can be an optional in a descriptive text. This paragraph signals the end of the text (Anderson & Mark, 2003).
According to Djuhaire (2009, p.153), language features of descriptive text are:
1. Using a specific noun and simple present tense.
2. Using detailed noun phrases, a noun word that added into adjective, medley kind of adjective that has quality of describing, numbering, classifying, relational process.
3. Using verbs described about condition of participant and signal of propriety.
4. Using figurative words as way to give compare illustrations.
Whereas, Kistono et al. (2007, p.9), language feature of descriptive text as follows:
a. Focus on specific participant.
The examples: father, school, my dog, etc.
b. Simple present tense.
c. Figurative language, using figurative language such as simile or metaphor as a way to give the illustration of comparison.
d. Relational process.
e. The variations of adjective (describing, numbering, classifying).
f. Frequent use of epithets and classifies in nominal group: the group of word that give the explanation (modifier) toward the now. The example: an old man, a beautiful girl, my mother, etc.
c. Example of Descriptive Text
I have a close Friend. She is beautiful, attractive and trendy. She always wants to be a trend setter of the day. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Recently, she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. This shoes really matches on her.
Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. When she are walking on that shoes, all her friends, including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. The style, bright color, and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She really has perfect appearance.
She is really mad on that shoes. She said that the products covered all genders. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. The products provide varieties of choice. Ballet, casual, boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend.
Source: SMA Students’ Module of English
B. Mind Mapping
1. Concept of Mind Mapping Technique
Readon and Nourie (as cited in desi, 2009) notes that mind mapping is creative note-taking method, which eases the learners to remember much information. The best mind mapping is colorful and used much pictures and symbols; usually like an art.
Buzan (2008, p.1) states that mind mapping is a powerful graphic technique, which provides a universal key to unlock the potential of brain. Mind mapping technique imitates the thinking process, namely possible us to move from one topic to another topics back and forth. Recording the information through symbols, pictures, emotional meaning and colors, exactly the same like our brains process it. A pattern which at least consists of picture, symbol and color that will not just help the students to understand the vocabulary knowledge but also makes the students feel good, enjoyable and attract their brain which at last lead them to have interest in mastery knowledge.
Hedge (as cited in Desi, 2009) states making a mind map is a strategy for note-making, in other words, scribbling down ideas about a topic and developing those ideas as the mind makes associations.
Hayes (as cited in Desi, 2009) states that through mind mapping students turns random thoughts into patterns that can be written down and developed. Students become increasingly motivated to complete a writing task as their ideas emerge in organized forms. It can be seen from the next figure that in mind mapping ideas presented in a radial, graphical, non-linear manner, so mind maps encourage a brainstorming approach to planning and organizational tasks freely. Though the branches of a mind map represent hierarchical tree structures, their radial arrangement disrupts the prioritizing of concepts typically associated with hierarchies presented with more linear visual cues. This orientation towards brainstorming encourages users to enumerate and connect concepts without a tendency to begin within a particular conceptual framework.
DePotter and Hernacki (2008, p.153) states that mind mapping is the use of whole brains technique by using the visualization and other graphic infrastructure to make an impression”. Besides, mind mapping is one of techniques which can make the students more enjoyable and interesting in studying reading.
Meanwhile, Murley (2007, p. 79) states that mind maps are a non linear visual outline of complex information that can aid creativity, organization, productivity, and memory. As a radiant thinking process, mind mapping maximizes the potential ability of the brain to memorize and organize ideas. Moreover, Murley also states that by using mind mapping someone can show their ideas in a relational context graphically. Mind mapping is effective to represent and rearrange ideas which come on mind based on the explanation above. Making colorful symbols, pictures, or lines can maximize the brain’s ability. In creating a mind mapping, the people use both of the brain sides; the left side and the right side that can make the process of memorizing and understanding the problem run easily. So it can be a pleasures activity on the problem solving.
2. The Classification of Mind Mapping Technique
Trianto (2009, p.160) describes that mind mapping can be distinguished into four kinds, namely:
a. Network Tree
The main ideas made in a quadrangle and other words written in the connection line. It is suitable for visualization (1) a cause and effect relation (2) a hierarchy, (3) branch procedure, and (4) technical terms which can be used to explain some correlations.
b. Event Chain
The event chain can be used for giving an accident order, steps in a procedure, or steps in a process. It is suitable for visualization (1) some steps in a process, (2) some steps in a linier procedure, and (3) an accident order.
c. Cycle Concept Map
In this concept map, the accident combination has no final result. It is suitable to show a correlation how a combination accident is interacting to produce a group of result repeatedly.
d. Spider Concept Map
The spider concept can be used for sharing opinion from a central idea until get more various big ideas. It is suitable to visualization (1) something which is not based on hierarchy (2) a category which is not parallel, and (3) the result of sharing opinion.
3. Parts of Mind Mapping Technique
According to Windura (2008, p.77) there are some parts of mind mapping namely:
a. Central Image
A central image has to describe the main idea of a mind mapping and put it on the centre of the paper. It is for activate the students’ right brain, strengthen the students’ memory and make the learning activity enjoyable.
b. Key Word
A key word is a word that can lead a sentence or event. Identifying a familiar word in one’s own language or another language that sounds like the new word and using only one key word per line. It is as an urge to remember a lot of words for the students. It is strong noun or verb that creates image to trigger recall the memory.
c. Basic Ordering Ideas
Basic ordering ideas are the branches that collect sort information and it connected to the central topic that radiate out from the centre. Making basic ordering ideas which can direct our mind to make mind mapping and it need creativity that encourage the students to understand to the material. It is thick and thinner at the ends. It can be seen as headings for your topic and spread anywhere but do not become steep.
The branches should be curvy and in the same length as the words or pictures above it. These branches can be seen as sub headings. It is thinner branches and containing details.
Color is a very good memory sign and it involves the right brain in learning for long term memory. Colors encourage creativity and help in memorization. Adding plenty of colors via branches, map background and images will add life to your mind map. It makes easier to comprehend and remember.
In mind mapping, pictures which can change or strengthen a key word that has been written before.
4. The Advantages of Using Mind Mapping Technique
According to DePorter and Hernacki (2008, p.172) there are some advantages of using mind mapping technique, they are as follows:
Explaining something can be easy without confusing in add the material based on the mind mapping. We can put the label and category of something based on our own opinion anywhere in the mind mapping.
b. Concentrate on the topic
Getting the subtopics what we talk about with focus on the main ideas easily. Keep focus on the keyword can help us to make it simple and it does not waste the time.
c. Increasing comprehension
Using mind mapping can make easy in understanding the material. Mind mapping is a simple think pattern so it is not make us confuse to understand what we have learned and easy to remember the material.
Imagination and creativity are unlimited in using mind mapping, so it can be funny to learn. By using pictures and colors, it makes the brain enjoy and excited in thinking something what we want about the material.
5. The use of Mind Mapping in Teaching Reading
In teaching mind mapping technique, Purwoko (as cited nin Desi, 2009) gives some direction, they are:
Step 1: Make a central image in the centre of the paper. Color and add something interesting.
Step 2: Draw some basic ordering ideas, spread out from the central image.
Step 3: Thinking of all something interesting as much as possible and funny for students and it can be connected with the central image to
to give the students the inspiration.
Step 4: Add some branches to the basic ordering ideas using symbols, pictures, and colors as much as possible.
Step 5: Thinking of the details which are interesting and it can encourage students’ curiosity and then add to the students’ mind map.
Step 6: Continue it until the learners have adequate information for your mind map.
C. Relevant study
The similar problem had been investigated by Desi Ramayanti. She investigated about “The Use of Mind Mapping Technique in Teaching Narrative Text to Improve Students’ Reading Comprehension (Quasi-Experimental Research in the Eighth Grade Students in academic year of 2008/2009). There were two research questions and were formulated as follows: (1) Is using mind mapping technique is effective in improving students’ reading comprehension on narrative text? (2) What are the advantages and the disadvantages of using mind mapping technique in reading narrative text?
There were two classes selected as the sample. They were XIII-G class and XIII-F class, where the experimental group was XIII-G class and the control group was XIII-F class. Each class consisted of 30 students. Quasi-experimental design was used as the research method. Besides, reading test and interview were conducted to obtain the data.
After conducting the treatments, the result showed that the technique could improve students reading comprehension on narrative text as indicated by a statistically higher reading score of experimental group students (M= 7.25, SE= 1.43) than control group students (M= 6.27, SE= 1.57) in the posttest. This difference was highly significant t (58) = 4.630, p < 0.05 with the effect size value r = 0.26.
Furthermore, the effectiveness was also supported by students’ responses in the interview. Most of students gave positive responses in the use of mind mapping technique in teaching reading narrative text. The use of mind mapping helped the students comprehend the story, increase their motivation, make them more creative and imaginative, make it easier for them to remember the story, create fun learning, and save the time.
The differences of these studies were viewed from the grade subject of the study. Desi Ramayanti took grade subjects for the seventh grade students at SMPN 3 Pujut in academic year of 2008/2009 while the present researcher takes the eleventh graders of SMA 1 Praya Timur in the school year 2011/2012.
The similarities of both researches were in investigating the main problem that is mind mapping technique and reading as the variables in the investigation.
D. Theoretical Framework
Teaching reading especially in English is not an easy task to do and it can be said that reading is difficult. It happens because the lack of consideration in applying the appropriate technique in teaching learning process because reading is an important skill for students to equip them in education. Kennedy (1981, p.5) states that reading is the ability of an individual to recognize a visual form, associate the form with a sound and or meaning acquired in the past, and on the basis of pas experience, understands and interpret its meaning. In reading from books, it is usually necessary to recognize, understand and interpret several words in a series.
Relates to the statement above, many efforts have been made to improve the learners’ reading ability. Some of them are shown by the existence of books and theories of reading and some books on reading exercise or learning to read. However, the fact shows that many learners still encounter problems or difficulties when they try to understand an English text (Cahyono, as cited in Desi, 2009) In line with the statement above the present researcher wants to investigate an appropriate technique namely mind mapping on reading and this technique may help the students in reading especially reading descriptive text. Buzan (as cited in Trianto, 2009) argues that the students can learn an interesting way using certain technique which is called mind mapping. In the usage of mind mapping, students not only use their left side of the brain to identify words but in the same time they also use the right side of the brain in learning language.
They will have opportunity to make some colorful pictures, lines, symbols or signs to help them remember the words or the facts in their mind maps. Moreover, students will get their own way in comprehending certain topic or material by using mind mapping. It is because mind mapping itself as personal as our body. So, every student will not feel depressed in understanding the material; they will learn differently each other but at the end of the lesson they will get the same comprehension.
Buzan (as cited in Trianto, 2009) also states that by using mind mapping students can remember well, make a better notes of their textbook, rise the idea, save the time to understand the material and concentrate with the material. In addition, at the end of the lesson, they will have ability to comprehend material in the textbook well and also they can tell other people easily about their understanding of certain topic using their own mind mapping.
The hypothesis of this study is formulated as follow “There is effect of mind mapping technique on reading descriptive text for the eleventh graders of SMA 1 Praya Timur in the school year 2011/2012”.